Difference between revisions of "Advertising"

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[[File:Advertisement in Berlin station.jpg|thumb|right|Advertisement in a [[rail station]] in [[Berlin]].]]
Advertising is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume more of a particular brand of product or service. Many advertisements are designed to generate increased consumption of those products and services through the creation and reinforcement of "brand image" and "brand loyalty". For these purposes, advertisements sometimes embed their persuasive message with factual information. Every major medium is used to deliver these messages, including television, radio, cinema, magazines, newspapers, video games, the Internet and billboards. Advertising is often placed by an advertising agency on behalf of a company or other organization.
'''Advertising''' is a form of [[communication]] that typically attempts to persuade potential [[customers]] to [[purchase]] or to consume more of a particular [[brand]] of [[product]] or [[service]]. Many [[advertisements]] are designed to generate increased consumption of those products and services through the creation and reinforcement of "[[brand image]]" and "[[brand loyalty]]". For these purposes, advertisements sometimes embed their persuasive message with factual information. Every major medium is used to deliver these messages, including [[television]], [[radio]], [[film|cinema]], [[magazines]], [[newspapers]], [[video games]], the [[Internet advertising|Internet]] and [[billboards]]. Advertising is often placed by an [[advertising agency]] on behalf of a company or other organization.{{Fact|date=July 2008}}
Advertisements can be regarded as a major form of producing [[waste]].
See [[:moneyless:tags/advertising|Moneyless.org]] for some more sensible information.
Advertisements are seen on the seats of [[shopping cart]]s, on the walls of an [[airport]] walkway, on the sides of [[bus]]es,and are heard in [[telephone]] hold messages and in-store [[public address systems]]. Advertisements are often placed anywhere an audience can easily or frequently access [[visual]], [[sound|audio]] and [[printed]] information.{{Fact|date=July 2008}}
Organizations that frequently spend large sums of money on advertising that sells what is not, strictly speaking, a product or service include [[political campaign|political parties]], [[interest group]]s, [[religion-supporting organization|religious organizations]], and [[military|military recruiters]]. [[Non-profit organization]]s are not typical advertising clients, and may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as [[public service announcements]]. {{Fact|date=July 2008}}
Advertising spending has increased dramatically in recent years. In 2006, spending on advertising has been estimated at $155 billion in the United States<ref>[http://www.tns-mi.com/news/01082007.htm TNS Media Intelligence]</ref> and $385 billion worldwide<ref>[http://www.pwc.com/extweb/pwcpublications.nsf/docid/5AC172F2C9DED8F5852570210044EEA7?opendocument&vendor=none Global Entertainment and Media Outlook: 2006–2010, a report issued by global accounting firm PricewaterhouseCoopers]</ref>, and the latter to exceed $500 billion by 2010. 
While advertising can be seen as necessary for [[economic growth]], it is not without [[social cost]]s. [[Unsolicited Commercial Email]] and other forms of [[Spam (electronic)|spam]] have become so prevalent as to have become a major nuisance to users of these services, as well as being a financial burden on [[internet service providers]].<ref>[http://interviews.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=03/03/03/1528247&tid=111 Slashdot | ISP Operator Barry Shein Answers Spam Questions<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> Advertising is increasingly invading public spaces, such as schools, which some critics argue is a form of child exploitation.<ref>[http://www.commercialalert.org/ Commercial Alert — Protecting communities from commercialism<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref><ref>[http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/parents/marketing/marketers_target_kids.cfm How Marketers Target Kids<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
[[Image:Advertising lekythos Louvre F358.jpg|thumb|left|230px|Black figures on horse back, Ancient Greek.]]
Egyptians used [[papyrus]] to create [[sales|sales messages]] and wall posters. [[Advertising campaign|Commercial messages]] and [[political campaign]] displays have been found in the ruins of [[Pompei]] and ancient [[Arabia]]. [[Lost and found|lost-and-found]] advertising on papyrus was common in [[Ancient Greece]] and [[Ancient Rome]]. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, which is present to this day in many parts of Asia, Africa, and South America.
The tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian [[Rock art|rock-art]] paintings that date back to 4000 BCE.<ref name= Bhatia>Bhatia (2000). ''Advertising in Rural India: Language, Marketing Communication, and Consumerism'', 62+68</ref> Still though back in the olde days of castles and peasants when small townships and cities were just beginning to grow throughout Europe. Few if any of the townships peoples could read and so signs on the street that should say cobbler or miller, or tailer, or smithy had no words the signage was the shape of a boot, a suit, a hat, a clock, a diamond, a horse shoe, a candle or even a bag of flour. Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons and their proprietors used street callers to announce out loud where they were set up so regular bartering customers could find the way to their always different location in the square and though without a clear and concise definition of such, advertising was born utilizing Indias: Language, Marketing Communication, and Consumerism. Even today street callers (town cryers) work the conjested street faires all over the world and today we still refer to its simplicity as "getting the word out". As education became an apparent need and reading as well printing developed, and in the 15th and 16th century, advertising expanded to include handbills. In the 17th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England. These early print advertisements were used mainly to promote: books and newspapers, which became increasingly affordable with advances in the [[printing press]]; and medicines, which were increasingly sought after as disease ravaged Europe. However, [[false advertising]] and so-called "[[Quackery|quack]]" advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertising content. 
[[Image:Edo period advertising in Japan.jpg|thumb|right|250px|[[Edo period]] advertising flyer from 1806 for a traditional medicine called ''Kinseitan'']]
As the economy expanded during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In the United States, the success of this advertising format eventually led to the growth of mail-order advertising.
In June 1836, French newspaper ''[[La Presse (France)|La Presse]]'' is the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its [[profitability]]. The formula is soon copied by all titles. Around 1840, [[Volney Palmer]] established a predecessor to [[advertising agency|advertising agencies]] in [[Boston, Massachusetts|Boston]].<ref name="eskilson-pg58">{{cite book |title=Graphic Design: A New History |last=Eskilson |first=Stephen J. |year=2007 |publisher=Yale University Press |location=New Haven, Connecticut |isbn=978-0-300-12011-0 |pages=58 }}</ref> Around the same time, in France, [[Charles-Louis Havas]] extended the services of his news agency, [[Havas]] to include advertisement brokerage, making it the first French group to organize. At first, agencies were brokers for advertisement space in newspapers. <!-- INSERT ADVERTISING AGENCIES' ROLES AFTER THEY OUTGREW BEING LIMITED TO BEING BROKERS FOR ADVERTISEMENT SPACE IN NEWSPAPERS --> [[N. W. Ayer & Son]] was the first full-service agency to assume responsibility for advertising content. N.W. Ayer opened in 1869, and was located in Philadelphia.<ref name="eskilson-pg58"/>
At the turn of the century, there were few career choices for women in business; however, advertising was one of the few. Since women were responsible for most of the [[purchasing]] done in their [[household]], [[advertisers]] and agencies recognised the value of women's insight during the [[creative]] process. In fact, the first American advertising to use a sexual sell was created by a woman &ndash; for a soap product. Although tame by today's standards, the advertisement featured a couple with the message "The skin you love to touch".{{Fact|date=June 2008}}
[[Image:Ad Encyclopaedia-Britannica 05-1913.jpg|thumb|left|250px|A print advertisement for the 1913 issue of the ''[[Encyclopædia Britannica]]'']]
In the early 1920s the first radio stations were established by radio equipment manufacturers and retailers who offered programs in order to sell more radios to consumers. As time passed, many non-profit organizations followed suit in setting up their own radio stations, and included: schools, clubs and civic groups.<ref name = "uouynv">[[Robert McChesney|McChesney, Robert]], ''Educators and the Battle for Control of U.S. Broadcasting, 1928-35'', Rich Media, Poor Democracy, ISBN 0-252-02448-6 (1999)</ref> When the practice of sponsoring programs was popularised, each individual radio program was usually sponsored by a single business in exchange for a brief mention of the business' name at the beginning and end of the sponsored shows. However, radio station owners soon realised they could earn more money by selling sponsorship rights in small time allocations to multiple businesses throughout their radio station's broadcasts, rather than selling the sponsorship rights to single businesses per show. This practice was carried over to television in the late 1940s and early 1950s.
A fierce battle was fought between those seeking to commercialise the radio and people who argued that the radio spectrum should be considered a part of the commons &ndash; to be used only non-commercially and for the public good. The United Kingdom pursued a public funding model for the [[British Broadcasting Corporation|BBC]], originally a private company but incorporated as a public body by Royal Charter in 1927. In Canada, advocates like [[Graham Spry]] were likewise able to persuade the federal government to adopt a public funding model. However, in the United States, the capitalist model prevailed with the passage of the [[1934 Communications Act]] which created the [[Federal Communications Commission]].<ref name = "uouynv"/> To placate the socialists, the U.S. Congress did require commercial broadcasters to operate in the "public interest, convenience, and necessity".<ref>[http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/P/htmlP/publicintere/publicintere.htm Public Interest, Convenience and Necessity<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> Nevertheless, public radio does exist in the United States of America. 
In the early 1950s, the Dumont television network began the modern trend of selling advertisement time to multiple sponsors. Previously, Dumont had trouble finding sponsors for many of their programs and compensated by selling smaller blocks of advertising time to several businesses. This eventually became the norm for the commercial television industry in the United States. However, it was still a common practice to have single sponsor shows, such as the U.S. Steel Hour. In some instances the sponsors exercised great control over the content of the show - up to and including having one's advertising agency actually writing the show. The single sponsor model is much less prevalent now, a notable exception being the Hallmark Hall of Fame. 
The 1960s saw advertising transform into a modern approach in which creativity was allowed to shine, producing unexpected messages that made advertisements more tempting to consumers' eyes. The [[Volkswagen]] ad campaign—featuring such headlines as "Think Small" and "Lemon" (which were used to describe the appearance of the car)—ushered in the era of modern advertising by promoting a "position" or "unique selling proposition" designed to associate each brand with a specific idea in the reader or viewer's mind. This period of American advertising is called the Creative Revolution and its poster boy was [[Bill Bernbach]] who helped create the revolutionary Volkswagen ads among others. Some of the most creative and long-standing American advertising dates to this incredibly creative period. 
[[Image:Times Square (delgaudm).jpg|thumb|right|Public advertising on [[Times Square]], [[New York City]].]]
The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the introduction of [[cable television]] and particularly [[MTV]]. Pioneering the concept of the [[music video]], MTV ushered in a new type of advertising: the consumer tunes in ''for'' the advertising message, rather than it being a [[by-product]] or afterthought. As [[cable]] and [[satellite television]] became increasingly prevalent, specialty channels emerged, including channels entirely devoted to advertising, such as [[QVC]], [[Home Shopping Network]], and [[ShopTV]]. 
Marketing through the [[Internet]] opened new frontiers for advertisers and contributed to the "[[dot-com bubble|dot-com]]" boom of the 1990s. Entire corporations operated solely on advertising revenue, offering everything from [[coupons]] to free Internet access. At the turn of the 21st century, a number of websites including the [[Web search engine|search engine]] [[Google]], started a change in online advertising by emphasizing contextually relevant, unobtrusive ads intended to help, rather than inundate, users. This has led to a plethora of similar efforts and an increasing trend of [[interactive advertising]].
The share of advertising spending relative to [[GDP]] has changed little across large changes in [[Mass media|media]]. For example, in the U.S. in 1925, the main advertising media were [[newspapers]], [[magazines]], signs on [[streetcars]], and outdoor [[posters]]. Advertising spending as a share of GDP was about 2.9 percent. By 1998, [[television]] and [[radio]] had become major advertising media. Nonetheless, advertising spending as a share of GDP was slightly lower—about 2.4 percent.<ref>[http://www.galbithink.org/ad-spending.htm Annual U.S. Advertising Expenditure Since 1919<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
A recent advertising innovation is "[[guerrilla promotions]]", which involve unusual approaches such as staged encounters in public places, giveaways of products such as cars that are covered with brand messages, and interactive advertising where the viewer can respond to become part of the advertising message. This reflects an increasing trend of interactive and "embedded" ads, such as via [[product placement]], having consumers vote through [[text message]]s, and various innovations utilizing [[social networking]] sites (e.g. [[MySpace]]).
===Mobile Billboard Advertising===
Mobile Billboards are flat-panel campaign units in which their sole purpose is to carry advertisements along dedicated routes selected by clients prior to the start of a campaign. Mobile Billboard companies do not typically carry third-party cargo or freight. Mobile displays are used for various situations in metropolitan areas throughout the world, including:
* Target advertising
* One day, and long term campaigns
* Convention
* Sporting events
* Store openings or other similar promotional events
* Big advertisements from smaller companies
===Public service advertising===
The same advertising techniques used to promote commercial goods and services can be used to inform, educate and motivate the public about non-commercial issues, such as AIDS, political ideology, energy conservation, religious recruitment, and deforestation.
Advertising, in its non-commercial guise, is a powerful educational tool capable of reaching and motivating large audiences. "Advertising justifies its existence when used in the public interest - it is much too powerful a tool to use solely for commercial purposes." - Attributed to Howard Gossage by [[David Ogilvy]]
Public service advertising, non-commercial advertising, public interest advertising, [[cause marketing]], and [[social marketing]] are different terms for (or aspects of) the use of sophisticated advertising and marketing communications techniques (generally associated with commercial enterprise) on behalf of non-commercial, public interest issues and initiatives.
In the United States, the granting of television and radio licenses by the FCC is contingent upon the station broadcasting a certain amount of public service advertising. To meet these requirements, many broadcast stations in America air the bulk of their required Public Service Announcements during the late night or early morning when the smallest percentage of viewers are watching, leaving more day and prime time commercial slots available for high-paying advertisers.
Public service advertising reached its height during World Wars I and II under the direction of several governments.
Now in days, people average around 500 advertisements a day, found one researcher.{{Fact|date=June 2008}}
==Types of advertising==
[[Image:Advertisingman.jpg|thumb|left|200px|Paying people to hold signs is one of the oldest forms of advertising, as with this [[Human directional]] pictured above]]
[[Image:Volvo B9TL SBS Transit SBS7357B.jpg|thumb|right|200px|A [[bus]] with an advertisement for [[Gap (clothing retailer)|GAP]] in [[Singapore]]. Buses and other vehicles are popular mediums for advertisers.]] 
[[Image:101 016 DRI Ingolstadt.jpg|thumb|200px|A [[DBAG Class 101]] with UNICEF ads at Ingolstadt main railway station]]
<!--- [[Image:Pedapodviews.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Transit advertising is combined with experiential marketing using [[pedapods]] in Australia]]. ---><!---Don't think this image adds much to the value of the article. --->   
Commercial advertising [[mass media|media]] can include wall paintings, [[Billboard (advertising)|billboard]]s, street furniture components, printed [[Flyer (pamphlet)|flyers]] and [[rack card]]s, radio, cinema and television ads, [[web banner]]s, mobile telephone screens, shopping carts, web [[popups]], [[skywriting]], bus stop benches, [[human directional]], magazines, newspapers, [[town crier]]s, sides of buses or airplanes ("[[logojet]]s"), [[In-Flight Advertising|in-flight advertisements]] on [[Airline Tray Table Advertising|seatback tray tables]] or overhead storage bins, taxicab doors, roof mounts and [[cabvision|passenger screens]], musical stage shows, subway platforms and trains, elastic bands on disposable diapers, stickers on apples in [[supermarket]]s, [[Grabertising|shopping cart handles]], the opening section of [[Streaming media|streaming]] audio and video, [[poster]]s, and the backs of event tickets and supermarket receipts. Any place an "identified" sponsor pays to deliver their message through a medium is advertising.
Another way to measure advertising effectiveness is known as ad tracking. This [[Advertising Research|advertising research]] methodology measures shifts in target market perceptions about the brand and product or service. These shifts in perception are plotted against the consumers’ levels of exposure to the company’s advertisements and [[Marketing|promotions]].The purpose of [[Ad Tracking]] is generally to provide a measure of the combined effect of the media weight or spending level, the effectiveness of the [[Advertising media selection|media buy or targeting]], and the quality of the advertising executions or creative. [http://www.ameritest.net/products/adtracking.pdf Ad Tracking Article]
:''See also [[Advertising media scheduling]] and [[Advertising-free media]]''
=== Covert advertising ===
{{main|Product placement}}
Covert advertising is when a product or brand is embedded in entertainment and media. For example, in a film, the main character can use an item or other of a definite [[brand]], as in the movie ''[[Minority Report (film)|Minority Report]]'', where [[Tom Cruise]]'s character John Anderton owns a phone with the ''[[Nokia]]'' logo clearly written in the top corner, or his watch engraved with the ''[[Bulgari]]'' logo. Another example of advertising in film is in ''[[I, Robot (film)|I, Robot]]'', where main character played by [[Will Smith]] mentions his ''[[Converse]]'' shoes several times, calling them "classics," because the film is set far in the future. ''[[I, Robot (film)|I, Robot]]'' and ''[[Spaceballs]]'' also showcase futuristic cars with the ''[[Audi]]'' and ''[[Mercedes-Benz]]'' logos clearly displayed on the front of the vehicles. [[Cadillac]] chose to advertise in the movie ''[[The Matrix Reloaded]]'', which as a result contained many scenes in which Cadillac cars were used. Similarly, product placement for [[Omega SA|Omega Watches]], [[Ford]], [[Vaio]], [[BMW]] and [[Aston-Martin]] cars are featured in recent [[James Bond]] films, most notably ''[[Casino Royale (2006 film)|Casino Royale]]''.
=== Television commercials ===
{{main|Television advertisement}}
The [[television commercial|TV commercial]] is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format, as is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial [[airtime]] during popular TV events. The annual [[Super Bowl]] [[American football|football]] game in the United States is known as the most prominent advertising event on television. The average cost of a single thirty-second TV spot during this game has reached $2.7 million (as of 2007).
The majority of television commercials feature a song or jingle that listeners soon relate to the product. See [[Music in advertising]].
Virtual advertisements may be inserted into regular television programming through computer graphics. It is typically inserted into otherwise blank backdrops<ref>[http://www.usatoday.com/money/advertising/2002-10-17-fake-ads_x.htm USATODAY.com - Digitally inserted ads pop up more in sports<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> or used to replace local billboards that are not relevant to the remote broadcast audience.<ref>[http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/LAC.20060315.RVIRTUAL15/TPStory/Business globeandmail.com: Business<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> More controversially, virtual billboards may be inserted into the background<ref>http://www.canwestmediaworks.com/television/nontraditional/opportunities/virtual_advertising/</ref> where none existing in real-life. Virtual product placement is also possible.<ref>[http://www.nytimes.com/glogin?URI=http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/02/business/media/02digital.html&OQ=_rQ3D1&OP=295c0536Q2FQ5B6ZQ3DQ5BamQ2BpemmbtQ5BtQ3FQ3FQ3AQ5BQ3FqQ5BQ3FtQ5BQ3DQ24p.Q5DZppQ5BIZa.Q2FQ5BQ3Fta.d.bQ2FyPibIy Advertising's Twilight Zone: That Signpost Up Ahead May Be a Virtual Product - New York Times<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> <ref>[http://www.ecommercetimes.com/story/48956.html Welcome to E-Commerce Times<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
There are two types of [[infomercial]]s, described as long form and short form.  Long form infomercials have a time length of 30 minutes.  Short form infomercials are 30 seconds to 2 minutes long.  Infomercials are also known as direct response television (DRTV) commercials. 
The main objective in an infomercial is to create an [[impulse purchase]], so that the consumer sees the presentation and then immediately buys the product through the advertised [[toll-free telephone number]] or [[website]]. Infomercials describe, display, and often demonstrate products and their features, and commonly have testimonials from consumers and industry professionals.
Some well known companies in the infomercial business are Script to Screen, Hawthorne Direct, International Shopping Network and [[Guthy-Renker]].
=== Newer media and advertising approaches===
Increasingly, other media are overtaking television because of a shift towards consumer's usage of the internet as well as devices such as [[TiVo]].
Advertising on the [[World Wide Web]] is a recent phenomenon. Prices of Web-based advertising space are dependent on the "relevance" of the surrounding web content and the traffic that the website receives.             
[[E-mail]] advertising is another recent phenomenon. Unsolicited bulk E-mail advertising is known as "[[e-mail spam|spam]]".
Some [[types of companies|companies]] have proposed to place messages or [[corporate logo]]s on the side of booster [[rocket]]s and the [[International Space Station]]. [[Controversy]] exists on the effectiveness of [[subliminal message|subliminal advertising]] (see [[mind control]]), and the pervasiveness of mass messages (see [[propaganda]]). 
Unpaid advertising (also called [[word of mouth]] advertising), can provide good exposure at minimal cost. Personal recommendations ("bring a friend", "sell it"), spreading buzz, or achieving the feat of equating a [[brand]] with a common noun (in the United States, "[[Xerox]]" = "[[photocopier]]", "[[Kleenex]]" = [[Facial tissue|tissue]], "[[Vaseline]]" = [[petroleum jelly]], "[[The Hoover Company|Hoover]]" = [[vacuum cleaner]], and "[[Band-Aid]]" = adhesive bandage) — these are the pinnacles of any advertising campaign. However, some companies oppose the use of their brand name to label an object. Equating a brand with a common noun also risks turning that brand into a [[genericized trademark]] - turning it into a generic term which means that its legal protection as a trademark is lost.
As the mobile phone became a new mass media in 1998 when the first paid downloadable content appeared on mobile phones in Finland, it was only a matter of time until [[mobile advertising]] followed, also first launched in Finland in 2000. By 2007 the value of mobile advertising had reached 2.2 billion dollars and providers such as Admob delivered billions of mobile ads.
More advanced mobile ads include banner ads, coupons, MMS picture and video messages, advergames and various engagement marketing campaigns. A particular feature driving mobile ads is the 2D Barcode, which replaces the need to do any typing of web addresses, and uses the camera feature of modern phones to gain immediate access to web content. 83 percent of Japanese mobile phone users already are active users of 2D barcodes.
A new form of advertising that is growing rapidly is [[Social network advertising]]. It is [[Online Advertising]] with a focus on social networking sites. This is a relatively immature market, but it has shown a lot of promise as advertisers are able to take advantage of the demographic information the user has provided to the social networking site.
From time to time, [[The CW]] airs short programming breaks called "Content Wraps," to advertise one company's product during an entire commercial break. The CW pioneered "content wraps" and some products featured were Herbal Essences, Crest, Guitar Hero 2, Cover Girl, and recently Toyota.
== Effect on memories and behavior ==
{{Refimprove|date=July 2006}}
: "''Half the money I spend on advertising is wasted; the trouble is, I don't know which half.''" - popular quote generally attributed to either [[John Wanamaker]] or [[William Lever]]; also one of the Wrigley people from the gum company.
[[Image:Smithwick's billboard NYC May 2005 Wikipedia.jpg|thumb|Billboard, New York City, (2005).The ad says, "60 days of daylight for Apartment 6F."]]
The impact of advertising has been a matter of considerable debate and many different claims have been made in different contexts. During debates about the banning of [[cigarette advertising]], a common claim from cigarette manufacturers was that cigarette advertising does not encourage people to smoke who would not otherwise. The (eventually successful) opponents of advertising, on the other hand, claim that advertising does in fact increase consumption.
According to many sources, the past experience and state of mind of the person subjected to advertising may determine the impact that advertising has. Children under the age of four may be unable to distinguish advertising from other television programs, while the ability to determine the truthfulness of the message may not be developed until the age of 8.
Over the past fifteen years a whole science of marketing analytics and [[marketing effectiveness]] has been developed to determine the impact of marketing actions on consumers, sales, profit and [[market share]]. Marketing Mix Modeling, direct response measurement and other techniques are included in this science.
== Public perception of the medium ==
As advertising and marketing efforts become increasingly ubiquitous in modern Western societies, the industry has come under criticism of groups such as [[Adbusters]] via culture jamming which criticizes the media and consumerism using advertising's own techniques. The industry is accused of being one of the engines powering a convoluted economic mass production system which promotes consumption. Recognizing the social impact of advertising, [[Mediawatch-uk]], a British special interest group, works to educate consumers about how they can register their concerns with advertisers and regulators. It has developed educational materials for use in schools.
Public interest groups are increasingly suggesting that access to the mental space targeted by advertisers should be taxed {{Fact|date=January 2008}}, in that at the present moment that space is being freely taken advantage of by advertisers with no compensation paid to the members of the public who are thus being intruded upon. This kind of tax would be a [[Pigovian tax]] in that it would act to reduce what is now increasingly seen as a public nuisance. Efforts to that end are gathering more momentum, with Arkansas and Maine considering bills to implement such a taxation. Florida enacted such a tax in 1987 but was forced to repeal it after six months, as a result of a concerted effort by national commercial interests, which withdrew planned conventions, causing major losses to the tourism industry, and canceled advertising, causing a loss of 12 million dollars to the broadcast industry alone.
[[Image:Utomhusreklam i Lund.jpg|thumb|200px|Billboard in [[Lund]], [[Sweden]], saying "One Night Stand?" (2005)]]
{{Main|Advertising regulation}} 
In the US many communities believe that many forms of outdoor advertising blight the public realm<ref>[http://www.urbanblight.org/ Welcome to SCRUB<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>. As long ago as the 1960s in the US there were attempts to ban billboard advertising in the open countryside<ref>[http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/beauty.htm How the Highway Beautification Act Became a Law<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>. Cities such as São Paulo have introduced an outright ban<ref>[http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/12/12/news/brazil.php Billboard ban in São Paulo angers advertisers - Americas - International Herald Tribune<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> with the UK capital also having specific legislation to control unlawful displays. 
There have been increasing efforts to protect the public interest by regulating the content and the influence of advertising. Some examples are: the ban on television tobacco advertising imposed in many countries, and the total ban of advertising to children under twelve imposed by the Swedish government in 1991. Though that regulation continues in effect for broadcasts originating within the country, it has been weakened by the [[European Court of Justice]], which had found that Sweden was obliged to accept foreign programming, including those from neighboring countries or via satellite.
In Europe and elsewhere, there is a vigorous debate on whether (or how much) advertising to children should be regulated. This debate was exacerbated by a report released by the [[Kaiser Family Foundation]] in February 2004 which suggested that food advertising targeting children was an important factor in the epidemic of [[childhood obesity]] in the United States of America.
In many countries - namely New Zealand, South Africa, Canada, and many European countries - the advertising industry operates a system of self-regulation. Advertisers, advertising agencies and the media agree on a code of advertising standards that they attempt to uphold. The general aim of such codes is to ensure that any advertising is 'legal, decent, honest and truthful'. Some self-regulatory organizations are funded by the industry, but remain independent, with the intent of upholding the standards or codes (like the [[Advertising Standards Authority]] in the UK).
In the UK most forms of outdoor advertising such as the display of billboards is regulated by the UK Town and County Planning system. Currently the display of an advertisement without consent from the Planning Authority is a criminal offense liable to a fine of £2500 per offence. All of the major outdoor billboard companies in the UK have convictions of this nature.   
Naturally , many advertisers view governmental regulation or even self-regulation as intrusion of their freedom of speech or a necessary evil. Therefore, they employ a wide-variety of linguistic devices to bypass regulatory laws (e.g. printing English words in bold and French translations in fine print to deal with the Article 12 of the 1994 [[Toubon Law]] limiting the use of English in French advertising); see Bhatia and Ritchie 2006:542. The advertisement of controversial products such as cigarettes and condoms is subject to government regulation in many countries. For instance, the tobacco industry is required by law in most countries to display warnings cautioning consumers about the health hazards of their products. Linguistic variation is often used by advertisers as a creative device to reduce the impact of such requirements.
===Global advertising===
Advertising has gone through five major stages of development: domestic, export, international, multi-national, and global. For [[Global Marketing|global advertisers]], there are four, potentially competing, business objectives that must be balanced when developing worldwide advertising: building a brand while speaking with one voice, developing economies of scale in the creative process, maximising local effectiveness of ads, and increasing the company’s speed of implementation. Born from the evolutionary stages of global marketing are the three primary and fundamentally different approaches to the development of global advertising executions: exporting executions, producing local executions, and importing ideas that travel. (Global marketing Management, 2004, pg 13-18)
[[Advertising Research|Advertising research]] is key to determining the success of an ad in any country or region. The ability to identify which elements and/or moments of an ad that contributes to its success is how economies of scale<!-- scale? --> are maximised. Once one knows what works in an ad, that idea or ideas can be imported by any other market. [[Market research]]  measures, such as Flow of Attention, Flow of Emotion and [[Wikt:branding moment|branding moments]] provide insight into what is working in an ad in any country or region because the measures are based on the visual, not verbal, elements of the ad. (Young, p.131)
{{Cleanup|date=August 2007}}
With the dawn of the Internet came many new advertising opportunities. [[Popup]], [[Adobe Flash|Flash]], [[banner]], [[advergaming]], and email advertisements (the last often being a form of spam) are now commonplace.
The ability to record shows on DVRs (such as [[TiVo]]) allow users to record the programs for later viewing, enabling them to fast forward through commercials. Additionally, as more seasons of pre-recorded “Boxed Sets” are offered for sale of [[Television show]] series; fewer people watch the shows on TV. However, the fact that these sets are '''sold''', means the company will receive additional profits from the sales of these sets. To counter this effect, many advertisers have opted for [[product placement]] on TV shows like [[Survivor (TV series)|Survivor]].
Particularly since the rise of "entertaining" advertising, some people may like an advertisement enough to wish to watch it later or show a friend. In general, the advertising community has not yet made this easy, although some have used the Internet to widely distribute their ads to anyone willing to see or hear them.
Another significant trend regarding future of advertising is the growing importance of niche or targeted ads. Also brought about by the Internet and the theory of [[The Long Tail]], advertisers will have an increasing ability to reach specific audiences. In the past, the most efficient way to deliver a message was to blanket the largest mass market audience possible. However, usage tracking, customer profiles and the growing popularity of niche content brought about by everything from blogs to social networking sites, provide advertisers with audiences that are smaller but much better defined, leading to ads that are more relevant to viewers and more effective for companies' marketing products. Among others, [[Comcast Spotlight]] is one such advertiser employing this method in their [[video on demand]] menus. These advertisements are targeted to a specific group and can be viewed by anyone wishing to find out more about a particular business or practice at any time, right from their home. This causes the viewer to become proactive and actually choose what advertisements they want to view.<ref>[http://www.comcastspotlight.com/sites/Default.aspx?pageid=7608&siteid=62&subnav=3 "Interactive - VOD"] ''Comcast Spotlight website'', retrieved October 5, 2006</ref>
In [[freelance]] advertising, companies hold public competitions to create ads for their product, the best one of which is chosen for widespread distribution with a prize given to the winner(s). During the 2007 Super Bowl, [[Pepsico]] held such a contest for the creation of a 30-second television ad for the [[Doritos]] brand of chips, offering a cash prize to the winner. [[Chevrolet]] held a similar competition for their Tahoe line of [[Sport utility vehicle|SUV]]s. This type of advertising, however, is still in its infancy. It may ultimately decrease the importance of advertising agencies by creating a niche for independent freelancers.{{Fact|date=February 2007}}
[[Embedded advertising]] or in-film ad placements are happening on a larger scale now than ever before. Films like [[Krrish]] had over a dozen placements including Lay’s, Bournvita, Samsung, Faber Castell and Hero Honda.
==See also==
*[[Ad Tracking]]
*[[Advertising Adstock]]
*[[Advertising campaign]]
*[[Advertising Research]]
*[[Advertising Standards Authority (United Kingdom)]]
*[[American Advertising Federation Hall of Fame]]
*[[Branded content]]
*[[Classified advertising]]
*[[Copy testing]]
*[[Communication design]]
*[[wikt:deceptive|Deceptive advertising]]
*[[Global Marketing]]
*[[Graphic design]]
*[[Human directional]]
*[[Integrated Marketing Communications]]
*[[Interactive advertising]]
*[[Local advertising]]
*[[Market overhang]]
*[[Mobile Marketing]]
*[[Music in advertising]]
*[[Online advertising]]
*[[Online classified advertising]]
*[[Performance-based advertising]]
*[[Public relations]]
*[[Reality marketing]]
*[[Social marketing]]
*[[wikt:unfair|Unfair]] advertising
*[[Video news release]] 
*[[Video commerce]]
*[[Viral advertising]]
*[[Visual Communication]]
*[[Web analytics]]
*[[World Federation of Advertisers]]
== References ==
== Bibliography ==
*Anthony,A,Abdo AU (2007) professor, history and geography
*Bhatia, Tej K. 2000. ''Advertising in Rural India: Language, Marketing Communication, and Consumerism''. Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa. Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. Tokyo Press: Japan. ISBN 4-87297-782-3
*Arthur Richards, Kent USA (2008) Teacher, Pirate, renaissance man 
*Clark, Eric, "The Want Makers", Viking, 1988. ISBN 0340320281
*Cook, Guy (2001 2nd edition) "The Discourse of Advertising", London: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-23455-7
*Graydon, Shari (2003) "Made You Look - How Advertising Works and Why You Should Know", Toronto: Annick Press, ISBN 1-55037-814-7 
*Johnson, J. Douglas, "Advertising Today", Chicago: Science Research Associates, 1978. ISBN 0-574-19355-3 
*Klein, Naomi (2000) ''No Logo ''. Harper-Collins, ISBN 0-00-653040-0 
*Kleppner, Otto, "Advertising Procedure", Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1966. 
* Kotabe, Masaki and Kristiaan Helsen, ''Global Marketing Management, 3rd Edition'', John Wiley & Sopns, Inc, publishers, Copyright 2004, ISBN 0-471-23062-6
*Lears, Jackson, ''Fables of Abundance: A Cultural History of Advertising in America'', Basic Books, 1995, ISBN 0465090753
*Leon, Jose Luis (1996) "Los effectos de la publicidad". Barcelona: Ariel, ISBN 84-344-1266-7 
*Leon, Jose Luis (2001) "Mitoanálisis de la publicidad". Barcelona. Ariel, ISBN 84-344-1285-3 
*Mulvihill, Donald F., [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2429%28195110%2916%3A2%3C179%3AMRFTSC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-I "Marketing Research for the Small Company"], Journal of Marketing, Vol. 16, No. 2, Oct., 1951, pp. 179-183.
*[[Vance Packard|Packard, Vance]], ''The Hidden Persuaders'', New York, D. McKay Co., 1957.
*Petley, Julian (2002) "Advertising". North Mankato, Minnesota: Smart Apple Media., ISBN 1-58340-255-1
* Young, Charles E., ''The Advertising Handbook'', Ideas in Flight, Seattle, WA April 2005, ISBN 0-9765574-0-1 
*Wernick, Andrew (1991) "Promotional Culture: Advertising, Ideology and Symbolic Expression (Theory, Culture & Society S.)", London: Sage Publications Ltd, ISBN 0-8039-8390-5 
== External links ==
*[http://www.eisnermuseum.org/exhibits/online.shtm On-Line exhibits] at [http://www.eisnermuseum.org/ William F. Eisner Museum of Advertising and Design] 
*[http://www.bl.uk/collections/business/advertin.html The British Library - finding information on the advertising industry]
*[http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Ai/web-advertising.html Bibliography on Web Advertising]
*[http://www.aef.com/index.html Advertising Educational Foundation], archived advertising exhibits and classroom resources
*[http://www.nonlineagency.com/multimedia/the_history_of_advertising/ Online Interactive History of Advertising]
=== Vintage archives ===
*[http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/adaccess/ Ad*Access, Duke University Library]
*[http://www.oldadvertisements.co.uk Archive Advertisements from Old Theatre Programmes]
*[http://tploy.com/20070914553/retro-cars-1900-1940-ad-19-pics.html Retro Cars Advertisements] - 19 Posters from the 19th International Motor Exhibition, 1925.
*[http://graphic-design.tjs-labs.com/gallery-view?span=15 American print advertising archive 1930 - 1969]
[[Category:Advertising| ]]
[[Category:Communication design]]
[[Category:Graphic design]]
[[Category:Promotion and marketing communications]]

Revision as of 04:23, 7 January 2014

Advertising is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume more of a particular brand of product or service. Many advertisements are designed to generate increased consumption of those products and services through the creation and reinforcement of "brand image" and "brand loyalty". For these purposes, advertisements sometimes embed their persuasive message with factual information. Every major medium is used to deliver these messages, including television, radio, cinema, magazines, newspapers, video games, the Internet and billboards. Advertising is often placed by an advertising agency on behalf of a company or other organization.

See Moneyless.org for some more sensible information.